How does an air rifle work?

I find many new air gunners asking, “How does an air rifle work?” That’s natural! To think of how air can power a rifle is mind-boggling enough.  Even more questionable is how such a rifle can kill an animal as big and tough as the Cape buffalo.

How does an air rifle work

Well, the doubts will cease once you understand the operating mechanisms of air rifles. Here we go!

The general operation of an air rifle

Speaking generally, air rifles make use of compressed air which is known to have high pressure. There are different ways of compressing air, as we shall soon see after this section.

The general operation of an air rifle

Once you load the air rifle with ammo, all you have to do is pull the trigger to release the compressed air. The pressurized air is released into the rear end of the barrel of the gun, where the ammo sits. The ammo is therefore forcefully driven along the barrel and out into the air.

This fairly summarizes the basic operating mechanism of all air rifles. The difference comes in the powerplants. There are 5 main types of air rifles based on the powerplants:

  • CO2 powered air rifles
  • PCP air rifles
  • Spring-powered air rifles
  • Gas piston air rifle

CO2 Air rifles

CO2 air rifles are powered using Carbon Dioxide gas. This exists in the gaseous form at temperatures above -69.9 degrees Fahrenheit. Increasing the temperature of Carbon Dioxide to 70 degrees Fahrenheit while confined to a vessel, the pressure increases to 852.8 psi. Any extra CO2 in that vessel takes the liquid form. 

CO2 Air rifles

As such, the CO2 cylinders usually contain pressurized CO2 above liquefied CO2. A single shot releases a small portion of the CO2. Some of the liquefied CO2 in the cylinder turns to gaseous form until the pressure stabilizes depending on the current temperature.

Therefore, the pressure in the CO2 cylinder remains fairly constant until all the liquid CO2 turns into a gaseous form. 

It is worthwhile to note that the pressure within the CO2 cylinder simply depends on the temperature and not mechanical compression. Your CO2 air rifle will therefore have more pressure on hot afternoons than when the weather is chilly  

PCP air rifles

Contrary to CO2 air rifles, PCP air rifles used compressed air – the general breathable air. The pressure within the air cylinder depends on the degree of mechanical compression, and not on temperature as seen in CO2 air rifles.

PCP air rifles

The degree of compression achievable depends on how the air cylinder is built, in terms of the maximum fill pressure. Some air cylinders can accommodate as much as 3500 psi, while others hold less than 2000 psi. 

Every shot decreases the pressure in the air cylinder. After several shots, the pressure falls to a level that cannot sustain powerful shots. This tells you it’s time to recharge the PCP air rifle. You may do this using the manual hand pump or the scuba tank. 

Spring-powered air rifles

These air rifles basically use a helical spring. The spring has a piston in front of it. 

Spring-powered air rifles

There are two variations of this:

  • The break barrel – you have to swing the barrel along a hinge so as to load the ammo and cock the gun
  • The fixed barrel – The barrel can’t swing, and so the air rifles come with a separate cocking lever. This can be located under the barrel or to the side of the barrel.

Cocking the air gun results in the mainspring being compressed. It is this elastic energy stored in the compressed spring that powers the gun. By pulling the trigger, you ideally release the compressed string, forcing it to violently push the piston in front of it. This additionally pressurizes the air in front of the piston. The pressurized air forces the pellet to fly along and out of the barrel.

Gas piston

This operates in a very similar fashion to the Spring-piston air rifles. But instead of compressing a helical spring, you compress a gas. The gas, in this case, can be nitrogen, which has favorable properties that make it usable in air rifles. That is the reason you hear of Nitro Piston air rifles. When you pull the trigger, the gas expands and forcefully pushes the piston forward.

Conclusion

All these air rifles have their related pros, cons, uses, and costs. To get a deeper insight into how air rifles work, visit Air Gun Maniac and check out their detailed guide on how to choose the best air rifles on the market

How To Check The Most Detailed Capacitor. With A Multimeter

In most electrical and electronics troubleshooting and repairing works, we face common trouble that how to test and check a capacitor? Is it good, bad (dead), short or open?

Here, we can check a capacitor with analog (AVO meter i.e. Ampere, Voltage, Ohm meter) as well as digital multimeter either it is in good condition or should we replace it with a new one…

Note: To find the value of Capacitance, you need a digital meter with Capacitance measuring features.

1.Traditional Method to Test & Check a Capacitor

Note: Not Recommended for everyone but professionals only. Please be careful to do this practice as it is dangerous. Make sure that you are a professional electrical engineer/electrician (you really know that what are you doing or check the warnings before applying this method) and there are no other options to check the capacitor because serious damages may occur during this practice). If you are sure, go ahead, otherwise, go to method 2 – 6 as alternative methods to a capacitor.

Suppose you want to check the Capacitor (for example, fan capacitors, room air cooler capacitors or tinny capacitors in a circuit board / PCB, etc.)

Warning & recommendations for testing a capacitor

For better safety, use 24V DC instead of 230V AC. In case of absence of the desired DC 24V system, you may use 220-224V AC, but you have to make a serial of resistors (say 1kΩ~10kΩ, 5~50Watts) to connect between the capacitor and 230V AC supply. So, it will reduce the charging and discharging current. Here is the step by step tutorial that how may you check a capacitor by this method.

  1. Disconnect the suspected capacitor from the power supply or make sure at least one lead of the capacitor is disconnected.
  2. Make sure that the capacitor is fully discharged.
  3. Connect two separate leads to the capacitor terminals. (Optional)
  4. Now safely connect these leads to 230 V AC Supply for a very short period (about 1-4 Sec) [or for a short time where the Voltage rise to 63.2% of the Source Voltage] .
  5. Remove safety leads from the 230 V AC Supply.
  6. Now short the capacitor terminals (Please be careful to do that and make sure that you have wear safety goggles)
  7. If it makes a strong spark, then the capacitor is good.
  8. If it makes a weak spark, then it is a bad capacitor to change it immediately with a new one.

2.Test a Capacitor By Analog Multimeter

To check a capacitor by AVO (Ampere, voltage, Ohm Meter ), follow the following steps.

  1. Make sure the suspected capacitor is fully discharged.
  2. Take an AVO meter.
  3. Select analog meter on OHM (Always, select the higher range of Ohms).
  4. Connect the Meter leads to the Capacitor terminals.
  5. Note The reading and Compare with the following results.
  6. Short Capacitors: Shorted Capacitor will show very low Resistance.
  7. Open Capacitors: An Open Capacitor will not show any movement (Deflection) on OHM meter Screen.
  8. Good Capacitors: Initially, it will show low resistance, and then gradually increases toward the infinite. It means that the Capacitor is in Good Condition.

3.Check a Capacitor By a Digital Multimeter

To test a capacitor by DMM (Digital Multimeter), follow the steps given below.

  1. Make sure the capacitor is discharged.
  2. Set the meter on the Ohm range (Set it at lease 1000Ohm = 1k).
  3. Connect the meter leads to the capacitor terminals.
  4. The Digital meter will show some numbers for a second. Note the reading.
  5. And then immediately it will return to the OL (Open Line). Every attempt of Step 2 will show the same result as was in step 4 and Step 5. It’s mean that the Capacitor is in Good Condition.
  6. If there is no Change, then the Capacitor is dead.

4.Checking Capacitor By Multimeter in the capacitance Mode

Note: You can do this test with a multimeter if you have a Capacitance meter or you have a multimeter with a feature to test the capacitance. Also, this method is good to test the tiny capacitors as well. To this test, rotate the multimeter knob to the capacitance mode.

  1. Make sure the capacitor is fully discharged.
  2. Remove the capacitors from the board or circuit.
  3. Now Select “Capacitance” on your multimeter.
  4. Now connect the capacitor terminal to the multimeter leads.
  5. If the reading is near to the actual value of the capacitor (i.e. the printed value on the Capacitor container box).
  6. Then the capacitor is in good condition. (Note that the reading may be less than the actual value of the capacitor (the printed value on the Capacitor container box).
  7. If you read a significantly lower capacitance or none at all, then the capacitor is dead and you should change it.

5.Testing a Capacitor By Simple Voltmeter.

  1. Make sure to disconnect a single lead (no worries if Positive (long) or negative (short)) of the capacitor from the circuit (You may fully disconnect as well when needed)
  2. Check the capacitor voltage rating printed on it (As shown in our below example where is the voltage = 16V)
  3. Now charge this capacitor for a few seconds to the rated (not to the exact value but less than that i.e. charge a 16V capacitor with 9V battery) voltage. Make sure to connect the positive (red) lead of the voltage source to the positive lead (long) of the capacitor and negative to negative. If you are unable to find it or not sure, here is the tutorial on how to find the negative and positive terminal of a capacitor.
  4. Set the value of the voltmeter to DC and connect the Capacitor to the voltmeter by connecting the positive wire of the battery to the positive lead of the capacitor and negative to negative.
  5. Note the initial voltage reading in the voltmeter. If it is close to the supplied voltage you have given to the capacitor, the Capacitor in Good condition. If it shows far little reading, Capacitor is dead then. note that the voltmeter will show the reading for very short term as the capacitor will discharge its volt in the voltmeter and it is normal.

6.Find the capacitor value by measuring the value of Time Constant

We can find the value of a capacitor by measuring the Time constant (TC or τ = Tau) if the value of capacitance of a capacitor is known in microfarad (symbolized µF) printed on it i.e. the capacitor is not blown and burnt at all.

In brief, the time is taken by a capacitor to charge about 63.2% of the applied voltage when charges through a known value of the resistor are called Time Constant of Capacitor (TC or τ = Tau) and can be calculated via:

Where:

R = Known Resistor

C = Value of Capacitance

τ = TC or τ = Tau (Time Constant)

For instance, if the supply voltage is 9V, then 63.2% of this is around 5.7V.

Now, let see how to find the value of a capacitor by measuring the Time Constant.

Make sure to disconnect as well as discharge the capacitor from the board.

Connect a known value of resistance (e.g 5-10kΩ Resistor) in series with the capacitor.

Apply the known value of supply voltage. (e.g 12V or 9V) to the capacitor connected in series with 10kΩ resistor.

Now, measure the time taken for the capacitor to charge about 63.2% of the applied voltage. For instance, if the supply voltage is 9V, then 63.2% of this is around 5.7V.

From the value of the given resistor and measured time, calculate the value of capacitance by Time Content formula i.e. τ = TC or τ = Tau (Time Constant).

Now compare the calculated value of capacitance with the value of the capacitor printed to it.

If they are the same or nearly equal, The capacitor is in good condition. If you find a noticeable difference in both values, time to change the capacitor as it is not functioning well.

The discharge time can also be calculated. In this case, the time taken by the capacitor to discharge to 36.8% of the peak voltage can be measured.

Good to know: The time taken by a capacitor to discharge about 36.8% of the peak value of the applied voltage can be also measured. The discharge time can be used as the same in the formula to find the value of the capacitor.

source:https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2013/06/how-to-check-capacitor-with-digital.html

Learn The Basics To Throw Darts For Beginners

darts is now a popular game at the bars/pubs
Darts is now a popular game at the bars/pubs
Throwing darts is now a popular game at the bars/pubs or at home, that keeps you entertained, helps reduce stress or just having a fun time with friends and family.

To become a skillful dart thrower, good throwing skill is a must, also a firm grip on the dart, followed by a smooth, consistent pitch are indispensable.

And most importantly, as with other sports, nothing gain without regular practice.

1. How to begin?

how to set up a dart board
Playing area for darts is determined based on the center of the dartboard.
The distance from the throw line to the board is usually 244cm, which corresponds to 2.4 meters (94 inches). The ideal height from the ground to the dartboard is 173cm (68 inches).

Relate: Which Electronic Dart Boards Should I Buy?

2. Postures to throw:

dart stance
There are 3 common postures when throwing darts: middle stance closed stance and open stance.

* Note, you can step a bit on the throw line but not over it.

– Middle stance: Stand diagonally to the dartboard. One foot is placed close to the throw line, one foot is crossed backward. For each or any ambush, you should use the same-sided foot and arm to support. This is the standard and easiest posture for foot adjustment, centering, and targeting.

– Closed stance: Stand completely aside from the dart board. The front foot is placed on the throw line, making it easy to get the same angle and posture. Pay attention not to put too much weight on the front foot, this can cause you to lose balance and throw the wrong target.

– Open stance (front position): The legs are as wide as the hip behind the throw line, standing opposite the dart board. This is the easiest standing posture but also is the least used as it makes the distance between player and dartboard closer and hard for them to lean forward.

3. How to hold and throw a dart:

3.1: How to hold a dart

How to throw dart with 4 fingers
– The most common way to hold a dart is on its upper body, just below the dart head. This part is also known as a “dart barrel”.

– Hold the dart barrel with 3 fingers: forefinger, thumb and middle finger. You can also use the ring finger to hold the end of the dart barrel for a more stable grip.

* Note: Do not hold the dart too tight making your finger muscles tense. Remember Darts is not a forced game, it is an entertaining game. Be sure to relax and grip tightly enough so the dart does not slip and you can control it when increasing the throwing speed.

See more:

3.2: How to throw darts

learn to throw darts
When holding a dart, your body should be stretched and comfortable. You should stand straight and do not lean forward too much, turn towards the dart and use both eyes to aim. Your elbow should be fixed in the most comfortable position.

The act of throwing a dart is made up of three movements, the “take back”, “release”, and “follow-through”. Try to maintain your postures so that you can throw in a stable motion.

– Take back: Bring your hand a bit forwards before throwing. Try to move your arm from the elbow to hand performing a folding fan-shaped motion.

Use your wrists, hands, and elbows to throw but keep your shoulder still. You should place your hand as the palm facing up naturally so that you won’t strain your wrist.

– Realse: Throw darts like you’re dropping a paper plane and don’t move your elbow. Try to release all fingers at once. If any finger release is delayed, the dart’s flight will be unstable.

– Follow up: In this motion, you just need to extend your arms and throw darts straight towards the target you aim.

Darts is a stress-free entertainment game that can be played by almost anyone. But to play well, you need to understand the techniques I have shared above and practice more often.

In addition to being entertained, darts also help you practice perseverance and concentration. How convenient it is!

Let’s enjoy the game and have fun.

 

learn basics longboarding

learn basics to beginner longboard

top 10 longboards for beginners you should choose

longboard and more

I will give you step-by-step tips from the very basics today to learning how to do tricks to den steps to assess combos

now I’m going to start with the very very basic

I am going to talk about pushing breaking all that kind of stuff Oxford

you let’s get started alright and the first thing we’re going to talk about today is your stance so in general

there are two kinds of skaters, ones which are left foot forward this is called regular

beginner longboard – top 10 choose 

when you put your right foot forward that’s so goofy

how do you know which you should put in front of you

I always tell people to walk and just flip on a slippery surface or abs right and what you sucked at home or something and switch you put in front of you then will be your friend and yet

if it goes for your exit be either we know what air sends is they treat other things who need to talk about it that’s riding switch riding fakie and writing body

and the first thing is the switch position

so the switch position is really clearly just when you’re switching to the other spin

when you normally goofy you go to the regular and you’re now right switch

if you’re normally regular you go to goofy you’re writing 42 so that’s pretty clear to try to switch and the second thing is body position the 90 positions is when you stand in your normal stance and you just move to your notes so without making 180 or something just moving your teacher you know

now you are in fact in the lighting position and then the safety position of the last position is when you send in your normal stance you make one Asia and then you go to your note so for some people as a basic the position is easier to learn tricks like physics and shove it for me

yours way easier for their safety for some people it’s easier to earn a the anodic position that’s something completely personal

if you see a trick tip and their teaching is its baby in your like office easier body for I just to an audience doesn’t matter at all extensive Omnitrix especially in the beginning so yes those are the stances

let’s go to the second one

alright, we know our stance is sent to writer longboard and the first the thing that we learn is how to push

the pushing is just you getting up and getting some speed and of course, it’s really important that you know how to do

it so some tips on it

pushing it pretty much like walking she just has one foot on the board

you can practice it by just walking off the award’s setting once Mohammed your front foot, of course, some people will put their back foot on the board and push with their front foot it’s called Mongo and the end kind of like

I’ve already suggested you learning out in which what your front foot on the board it doesn’t really matter that much where you will proudly thank me if you learn it that way just trust me on that one

you just walk up to your board and set your front foot on the front of your board, you go to unique you set your back foot on the ground

just take off just like that you just pushed and now you can fit your back foot back on the board and you put it perpendicular with the length of the board that you’re more stable and then after that the next step and the left that is shifting your front foot 90 degrees to so that you’re now would you feed perpendicular to the length of the board and you’re very stable has to go carve and just cruising along with work

that is the most stable position that you can do on long work and then push again

you just knew to reverse movement when you put your front foot parallel with the length of the board again go to you again maybe you want to check if you’re a stable first

you want to check if you can stand on the front hoods below when you are balanced than just going to your knee again set your backs on the ground push and just do it all over again and that yeah whoo men are you skinny and by the way, this will be very weird at first but as you view it a lot

this will come become second nature and you won’t have to think about it anymore so that’s a refund and then next up we’re going to talk about carving

so carving or a card is to make a turn, so this is for me the most fun part of longboarding this guy like separates is for skating for me, a kiss is that surface feeling you get when you’re carving so in general, just stand with your two feets perpendicular to the length of the board and then you try playing what’s your bodyweight

if you put your body weight to the front of your boards your toe side edge then you’ll make a solar size car to do the heel size to make a heel size guard

of course, you want to go through your knees though if this will make you more stable on the board and yeah just like that you can carve  if you reach this point

incase of,  you are in just cruising along more just have fun and I think it’s essential that you don’t brush into trying tricks and you take your time to just get used to the board me personally

How To Choose A Campsite – 7 Important Tips For Beginners

Your choice of campsite may make or hinder the success of your trip.

Perhaps anyone who camped often would choose an unimaginable place. We, too.

There is a dense camping site, no place to avoid the wind, slip on the mattress inflated almost all night because of a tent on the slope, …

To help you avoid the mistakes we made or see others make, we’ve put together tips on how to choose a campsite.

7 suggestions below will help you.

1. Size

Each location has a different size and you need to calculate the area of your campsite.
– Is your tent big or not?
– How many tents do you need to fit into the camp?
– Will there be space for tables, chairs, or auxiliary equipment such as portable camping kitchen sets (if any)?

If you only pay for one site, you can’t invade another. Think about the space you need based on the equipment that comes with it. Another important consideration when choosing campsite sizes:
– Do you use a campfire?
You will not want campfires close to your camping gear, especially camping tents. You want the fire to be far enough away so the smoke won’t fill your shelter.
Consider a campsite suitable for your equipment and keep the campfire at a safe distance.

2. Elevation

If you will sleep on a hill slope, you will slip off the bed. That is why you need to find a nice and flat campsite for shelter. You do not want your legs to lie higher than your head.
Sleeping in a high place is not always possible. Other items may also be on the slightly sloping slope, otherwise, your drinks will slip off the table (but nothing serious).
The other reason you will find a relatively high place is because it is likely to rain.
In low and sloping areas, water can pour out, forming puddles and increasing the likelihood of water seeping into the tent.

3. Shade

If it is sunny, the shade would be a good choice.
Look at the trees growing around your campsite and see which ones are growing near your desired location.
Eucalyptus tree (scientific name: Eucalyptus) is famous for breaking branches and falling suddenly, especially after a period of heat and rain. Avoid camping under large eucalyptus trees or trees with large branches and/or dry trees.
Some of you camp under a pine tree, which they deem safe. But then a big branch broke and fell into their car in the middle of the night. Fortunately, it’s their car, not them.
Lush greenery can provide the much-needed shade, but its location within the campsite is also an important consideration.
See which sun sets and sets and camps in the shade. If you arrive at the campsite in the morning, consider this beforehand.

4. Location

That is entirely your decision.
– Near water sources: If you need drinking water, how far will you need to walk to access the water? Is this what you need for the trip?
– Restroom: How far is the toilet located (if any)? Do you need them close by and may be exposed to the smell and rush of people into it, or can you be self-sufficient and not ask for it nearby?
– Privacy: What separates your camp from the camp next door?
– Near other camps: How is the next camp near you? Are you all going to overlap?
Think of the noise problem if you force yourself in a tight camping space.

5. Neighbors

“What the hell is it?” – It is a reality when camping near others.
When looking at a campsite where others are already present, we sometimes look at themselves, and that will be a factor in our camp choice.
Before receiving hate comments here, let me say this: I understand you cannot judge a person by their appearance. I’m not talking about their appearance, it’s how they camp.
Keep reading so I can explain it more clearly.
For example, if they turned on the generator all day or threw trash everywhere and loudly, I thought this would be a less peaceful camping trip. That’s the way they camp, not the way I want it.
Similarly, if there were free-running dogs all over the place or people who’d been dumbfounded in the middle of the morning, I wouldn’t be very interested in setting up camp next to them.
So we go ahead and find another place.
If none of the above annoys you or you are the camper type described above then you can skip this step to select the campsite.

6. Wind

A wind can be a good thing – blowing away smoke, helping to condense and cool the hot sunny day. But strong winds can make your camping trip not only harder to set up but also increase the risk of blowing your shelter and belongings from where you originally placed them.
So some protection for a trip from the wind like sand dunes, boulders, or hills can be beneficial when choosing a campsite.

7. Conditions at the campsite

You may need to get off and look around the campsite a little closer to making a decision.
= Check to see if there are ant colonies in the camp (they will find you before you know it).
– Is the ground clean of debris such as twigs/rocks/rubbish, especially glass or metal – they can damage camping equipment and even hurt you. You can clean them up if needed, so it’s not a disaster for your camp. Still, it is worth considering.
– Is the soil hard or not? This may indicate that the site will not drain well when it rains.
The more you camp, the more instinct becomes your second instinct.
Sometimes you cannot eliminate all of the above elements in a campsite.
You may have to accept a more vacant camp for the elements or be away from the comfort you expect. You just need to be well prepared when it happens and readjust it if possible.

See more:

Top 10 Best 20 Quart Coolers

Best Backpacking Tent Under $100